The tumultuous year of 1989 has led to dramatic shifts in international relations: with the end of the Cold War the bi-polar international order has changed, creating a new security landscape. The crumbling economies of the Communist world gave way to capitalism, which itself had been changing. Totalitarian and authoritarian regimes began democratising. The Iron Curtain and the Berlin Wall came down. Europe reunited. “History ended”. Or so it seemed.
On the 30th anniversary, it is time to reflect on the hopes and desires of 1989. While the 30 years after 1945 is remembered as the Trente Glorieuses (the Thirty Glorious Years) of uninterrupted economic devel
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