One of the four provinces of Pakistan, Sindh is located in the south-east of the country on the border with India. Sindh is one of the most important and successful regions regarding economic development; its administrative center - Karachi - has long been the capital of the country. Sindh delivers the most significant share of revenues to the federal budget but does not benefit from the centralized redistribution as, for example, the state of Punjab.
The titular ethnic group in Sindh is Sindhi (also Sindi) that comprises about 60% of the province's population. Sindhi speak a language that is different from the rest of the country. Some of the Sindhi are adherents of Zoroastrianism and Hinduism, but mostly they profess Islam of the Sunni type. In the territory of the region, Sindhi tend to live in rural areas, while cities, especially Karachi, are inhabited by Muhajirs - Urdu-speaking people from North and West India who moved to Pakistan after the partition of British India in 1947. There are Pashtuns and Punjabis, Baluchis, and Gujaratis also.
Specificity of the regional political process is linked to the dominance of the Pakistan People's Party in provincial politics, one of the two main parties on the national level. At the same time, the Muhajirs political party is active as well. Relations between Sindhi and the Mukhajirs are tense. The Mukhajirs aspire to occupy a dominant position in the bureaucratic and entrepreneurial spheres; they also demand to make Urdu the only official language in the country. Also, there are conflicts between the provincial, regional government and the Pakistani central government, mainly regarding the allocation of federal budget funds.