One of the 29 states of India, West Bengal is located in the north-east of the country. Bengal was one of the largest provinces of British India. Historically, this territory was characterized by a high degree of religious heterogeneity, which gave rise to an acute conflict in the process of obtaining India's independence. Bengal was divided into Muslim (East Pakistan) and Hindu parts (Indian state of West Bengal). The division was accompanied by bloody clashes and mass resettlement of people, as the Hindu and Muslim communities were never localized.
The titular group of West Bengal - Bengalis (86% of the total population) - is identified by their language. At the same time, religion is of great importance since the Bengalis of West Bengal separate themselves from the Bengali Muslims of neighbouring Bangladesh (formerly East Pakistan). However, not all Muslims left the territory of West Bengal. So far, they constitute 25% of the state's population, and after Jammu and Kashmir and Assam, West Bengal is the most Muslim-populated among the Indian states. This feature causes problems in interconfessional relations.
Also, there are numerous ethnic minorities in the province, among which the ideas of national self-determination are strong. In a number of cases, this breeds armed conflicts. For example, despite the granting of the subregional autonomy for Darjeeling, activists of the titular Gorka group in this area struggle for their secession into separate Gorkaland state.