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Assam

  • Description
  • Parameters of the autonomy
  • Illustrations
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Assam

Description of the autonomy

One of the 29 states of India, Assam is located in the north-east part of the country. It was established on the basis of the British colonial province after India gained independence in 1947. Assam is historically a multi-ethnic state as it included the territories inhabited by various mountain peoples. Many of them struggled for a self-determination and throughout the 1960-80s some areas of Assam seceded in separate provinces. After their separation, Assam acquired features of ethnic autonomy.

The title group is the Assamese, which makes up about half of the state population. As an ethnic community, the Assamese formed in the era of the medieval kingdom of Ahom. By language and religion, they are close to the Indian majority, which professes Hinduism and speaks Hindi (Assamese, like Hindi, belongs to the Indo-Aryan languages). At the same time, more than a quarter of the population of the state is made up of Bengalis who migrated massively after the division of British Bengal into Muslim and Hindu units, as well as after the 1971 war and the disintegration of Pakistan. A significant proportion of Bengalis professes Islam, and on the whole, more than 30% of the inhabitants of Assam are Muislims, which creates tensions in inter-confessional relations.

Also, even after the establishment of separate states for minorities, various mountain Tibeto-Burmese peoples who are fighting for self-determination still live in Assam: Bodo, Dimasa, Karbi, Naga, Kukis, etc. Despite the fact that specific autonomous districts have been created for some minorities, the insurgent organizations did not lay down their arms. Likewise, among the Assamese groups, there is a separatist movement directed against Bengali Muslim migrants, as well as seeking secession from India and the re-establishment of the state by Ahom. In general, the situation in inter-ethnic relations in the province remains tense. It is further aggravated by the poor state of Assam's economy.

Autonomy's characteristics

  • Year of the creation of the autonomy:
  • Geographic
  • Where is the autonomy situated:
  • Autonomy area: km²
  • Share of the autonomy in the area of the country: %
  • Autonomy population:the latest census thousands of people
  • Share of the autonomy in the population of the country: %
  • Country's characteristics
  • Level of economic development of the country:GDP per capita in 2015 in current price in $ in $
  • Political regime in the country:It is based on the Freedom House Index, 2015. All countries of the world are located on a scale from 1 (most free) to 7 (least free). Countries whose ratings fall between 1.0 and 2.5 are “Free”, between 3.0 and 5.0 are "Partly Free," and those between 5.5 and 7.0 are "Not Free."
  • Economic
  • Share of the autonomy in the economy of the country:GRP of the autonomy divided to GDP of the country (%) %
  • Level of economic development of the autonomy:relative to the country (%): GRP per capita of the autonomy divided to GDP per capita of the country %
  • Ethnic
  • Share of the dominant in the country ethnic group in the population of the autonomy:in %: population size of the dominant in the country ethnic group divided to overal population size of the autonomy (the latest census; expert estimations) %
  • Share of the titular ethnic group in the population of the autonomy:in %: population size of the titular ethnic group of the autonomy divided to overal population size of the autonomy (the latest census; expert estimations) %
  • Ethnic peculiarity:It indicates a key characteristic of autonomy's ethnic identity - language or religion or both
  • Diversity of ethnic composition:The presence of other (in addition to the titular group in the autonomy and the dominant group in the country) significant ethnic groups in the population of the autonomy
  • Political
  • Degree of self-rule of the autonomy:It is based on the Regional Authority Index project that aims at measuring the powers of all the regions in 81 countries. Here the index "tier_selfrule" (2010) is used. It summarizes five dimensions of self-rule: institutional depth; policy scope; fiscal autonomy; borrowing autonomy; and the extent to which a region has an independent legislature and executive. The index takes value from 0 to 18
  • Degree of shared-rule of the autonomy:It is based on the Regional Authority Index project that aims at measuring the powers of all the regions in 81 countries. Here the index "tier_sharedrule" (2010) is used. It summarizes five dimensions of shared-rule: participation of a region in national law-making; intergovernmental meetings; the distribution of national tax revenues; borrowing; and constitutional change. The index takes value from 0 to 12
  • The presence of the "kin-state":"Kin-state" is a state whose main population shares the ethnic characteristics of the titular ethnic group of the autonomy
  • Linguistic preferences:It indicates how the language of the titular ethnic group of the autonomy is learned in secondary schools in the autonomy
  • Ethnic conflicts:It indicates whether the serious conflicts between the autonomy and the central government as well as between ethnic groups within the authority take place in 2001-2015. The level of conflict is determined on the basis of the annual reports of Conflict Barometer

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Added by: LDMitay, 16.11.2017

 
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