One of the 22 republics of the Russian Federation. It is located in South Siberia, in the geographic center of Asia. The longest south-eastern and southern border of the Republic of Tuva with Mongolia is the state border of the Russian Federation.
In 1921 the Tuvan People's Republic was proclaimed. It was recognized by the USSR and Mongolia. For about 20 years it existed as a partially recognized state, and in 1944 it was accepted into the RSFSR as the Tuvan Autonomous Oblast (in 1961 it was transformed into the Tuva ASSR). In 1990, the Declaration on State Sovereignty was adopted, and shortly thereafter the Tuva ASSR was renamed as the Republic of Tuva. In the current Constitution, the names "Republic of Tuva" and "Tuva" are recognized as equivalent.
The titular ethnic group is Tuvinians. The defining markers of their differences from the titular nation of the country are language and religion. Tuvan language is linked to the branch of Turkic languages. Most Tuvinians profess Buddhism, although there are adherents of Shamanism.
According to the results of the 2010 All-Russia Population Census, Tuvinians make up 82% of the region's population, while Russians - 16.3%. The share of Russians decreased significantly in comparison to the Soviet period since in the early 1990s, many of them left the republic. Along with economic reasons, this was also caused by some tension that arose between the Russian and Tuvinian population of the region.