One of the 22 republics of the Russian Federation. It is located in the North Caucasus, borders on the west with Karachay-Cherkessia, in the north with the Stavropol Krai, in the east and the southeast, with North Ossetia and Georgia in the south.
In 1921, the Mountain ASSR was created. It included Kabarda, Balkaria, Ossetia, Ingushetia and Chechnya, but in June 1921 Kabarda left the Mountain Republic declaring itself the Kabardin Autonomous Oblast within the RSFSR. In 1922, it was merged with Balkaria and thus Kabardino-Balkar Autonomous Oblast. was formed (since 1936 it became a Republic). In 1944, after the deportation of some the Balkars, it was renamed the Kabardin ASSR, after rehabilitation in 1957, the Kabardino-Balkar ASSR was restored. Since 1992 it became the Kabardino-Balkar Republic (KBD).
There are two titular ethnic groups - Kabardians and Balkars. According to the All-Russia Population Census of 2010, Kabardians make up 57.2% of the population of the republic, Balkarians - 12.7%, Russians - 22.5%. The defining markers of differences of Kabardians and Balkars from the titular nation of the country are language and religion. The language of the Balkarians (Karachay-Balkar language) refers to the Turkic family of languages, the Kabardians (Kabardino-Cherkess language) - to the Caucasian language family. Thus, the titular peoples belong to two different language groups that do not have a genetic relationship. However, they are similar in religion, as both peoples predominantly profess Islam of the Sunni type.
The situation in interethnic relations in the republic is estimated as unstable. The republic is characterized by manifestations of Islamic radicalism, as well as the tension arising on the issue of the distribution of power positions among ethnic groups.