One of the 22 republics of the Russian Federation. It is located in the southern part of the Ural Mountains, on the border of Europe and Asia. It is one of the leading industrial and agricultural regions of the Russian Federation, one of the main oil-producing regions of the country and the center of industry and engineering. It occupies the first place in terms of population among the republics.
The Autonomous Republic was proclaimed in 1917 by the Bashkir regional Shuro and became the first national-territorial autonomy in Russia. In 1919, it was recognized by the Soviet government. In 1990, the Supreme Council of the Republic adopted the Declaration on State Sovereignty.
The titular ethnic group is the Bashkirs (Bashkir), the Turkic people, who live predominantly on the territory of the Republic. The defining markers of their differences from the titular nation of the country are language and religion. Bashkirs speak the Bashkir language, which is linked to the Bulgaro-Kypchak subgroup of the Turkic group of the Altaic family of languages. The traditional Bashkir religion is Sunni Islam of the Hanafi school.
According to the results of the All-Russia population census of 2010, Bashkirs made up 29.5% of the population of the republic. Two other major ethnic groups are Russians (36.1%) and Tatars (25.4%). An approximately equal ratio of the three ethnic groups creates some problems in interethnic relations, especially in terms of language policy, as well as in the distribution of power positions. The relationship between Bashkirs and Tatars has a significant conflict potential.