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Bashkortostan

  • Description
  • Parameters of the autonomy
  • Illustrations
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Autonomy’s map

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Bashkortostan

Description of the autonomy

One of the 22 republics of the Russian Federation. It is located in the southern part of the Ural Mountains, on the border of Europe and Asia. It is one of the leading industrial and agricultural regions of the Russian Federation, one of the main oil-producing regions of the country and the center of industry and engineering. It occupies the first place in terms of population among the republics.

The Autonomous Republic was proclaimed in 1917 by the Bashkir regional Shuro and became the first national-territorial autonomy in Russia. In 1919, it was recognized by the Soviet government. In 1990, the Supreme Council of the Republic adopted the Declaration on State Sovereignty.

The titular ethnic group is the Bashkirs (Bashkir), the Turkic people, who live predominantly on the territory of the Republic. The defining markers of their differences from the titular nation of the country are language and religion. Bashkirs speak the Bashkir language, which is linked to the Bulgaro-Kypchak subgroup of the Turkic group of the Altaic family of languages. The traditional Bashkir religion is Sunni Islam of the Hanafi school.

According to the results of the All-Russia population census of 2010, Bashkirs made up 29.5% of the population of the republic. Two other major ethnic groups are Russians (36.1%) and Tatars (25.4%). An approximately equal ratio of the three ethnic groups creates some problems in interethnic relations, especially in terms of language policy, as well as in the distribution of power positions. The relationship between Bashkirs and Tatars has a significant conflict potential.

Autonomy's characteristics

  • Year of the creation of the autonomy:
  • Geographic
  • Where is the autonomy situated:
  • Autonomy area: km²
  • Share of the autonomy in the area of the country: %
  • Autonomy population:the latest census thousands of people
  • Share of the autonomy in the population of the country: %
  • Country's characteristics
  • Level of economic development of the country:GDP per capita in 2015 in current price in $ in $
  • Political regime in the country:It is based on the Freedom House Index, 2015. All countries of the world are located on a scale from 1 (most free) to 7 (least free). Countries whose ratings fall between 1.0 and 2.5 are “Free”, between 3.0 and 5.0 are "Partly Free," and those between 5.5 and 7.0 are "Not Free."
  • Economic
  • Share of the autonomy in the economy of the country:GRP of the autonomy divided to GDP of the country (%) %
  • Level of economic development of the autonomy:relative to the country (%): GRP per capita of the autonomy divided to GDP per capita of the country %
  • Ethnic
  • Share of the dominant in the country ethnic group in the population of the autonomy:in %: population size of the dominant in the country ethnic group divided to overal population size of the autonomy (the latest census; expert estimations) %
  • Share of the titular ethnic group in the population of the autonomy:in %: population size of the titular ethnic group of the autonomy divided to overal population size of the autonomy (the latest census; expert estimations) %
  • Ethnic peculiarity:It indicates a key characteristic of autonomy's ethnic identity - language or religion or both
  • Diversity of ethnic composition:The presence of other (in addition to the titular group in the autonomy and the dominant group in the country) significant ethnic groups in the population of the autonomy
  • Political
  • Degree of self-rule of the autonomy:It is based on the Regional Authority Index project that aims at measuring the powers of all the regions in 81 countries. Here the index "tier_selfrule" (2010) is used. It summarizes five dimensions of self-rule: institutional depth; policy scope; fiscal autonomy; borrowing autonomy; and the extent to which a region has an independent legislature and executive. The index takes value from 0 to 18
  • Degree of shared-rule of the autonomy:It is based on the Regional Authority Index project that aims at measuring the powers of all the regions in 81 countries. Here the index "tier_sharedrule" (2010) is used. It summarizes five dimensions of shared-rule: participation of a region in national law-making; intergovernmental meetings; the distribution of national tax revenues; borrowing; and constitutional change. The index takes value from 0 to 12
  • The presence of the "kin-state":"Kin-state" is a state whose main population shares the ethnic characteristics of the titular ethnic group of the autonomy
  • Linguistic preferences:It indicates how the language of the titular ethnic group of the autonomy is learned in secondary schools in the autonomy
  • Ethnic conflicts:It indicates whether the serious conflicts between the autonomy and the central government as well as between ethnic groups within the authority take place in 2001-2015. The level of conflict is determined on the basis of the annual reports of Conflict Barometer

Illustration

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Added by: LDMitay, 16.11.2017

 
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