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Adygeya

  • Description
  • Parameters of the autonomy
  • Illustrations
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Adygeya

Description of the autonomy

One of the 22 republics of the Russian Federation. It is located in the central part of the North-Western Caucasus, in the basins of the Kuban, Laba and Belaya rivers. The republic is situated on the territory of the Krasnodar Krai.

Circassian (Adygea) Autonomous Oblast was established in 1922, in 1928 it was renamed the Adyghe Autonomous Oblast. From 1937 to 1991 was an integral part of the Krasnodar Territory. In 1991 the Adyghe Autonomous Oblast was transformed into an autonomous republic within the RSFSR, a year later it was renamed as the Republic of Adygea.

The titular ethnic group is the Adyghe people (or Circassians) - the common name of Kabardians, Circassians, Adygs people in Russia. Self-name - Adyghe. There are three national subordinate entities in which Adyghe is one of the titular groups in the Russian Federation: Adygea, Kabardino-Balkaria and Karachaevo-Cherkessia. The markers of their differences from the titular nation of the country are language and religion. The Adyghe speak the Adyghe language, which is a part of the Abkhaz-Adyg family. They are Sunni Muslims and adhere to the Hanafi school of Islam. In general, Adyghe is less religious than other ethnic groups in the North Caucasus due to the late adoption of Islam in the region.

According to the results of the All-Russia Population Census of 2010, the share of Russians in the Republic of Adygea was 63.6%; Adyghe - 25.2%.

The historical memory of the genocide during the Caucasian War is of great importance for the ethnic identity of the Adyghe. As a result of the genocide, the majority of Adyghe found themselves outside of Russia. There are no significant ethnic conflicts in the republic, however, from time to time conflict situations arise, in particular, around the issues of the return of compatriots, historical memory, language policy, etc.

Autonomy's characteristics

  • Year of the creation of the autonomy:
  • Geographic
  • Where is the autonomy situated:
  • Autonomy area: km²
  • Share of the autonomy in the area of the country: %
  • Autonomy population:the latest census thousands of people
  • Share of the autonomy in the population of the country: %
  • Country's characteristics
  • Level of economic development of the country:GDP per capita in 2015 in current price in $ in $
  • Political regime in the country:It is based on the Freedom House Index, 2015. All countries of the world are located on a scale from 1 (most free) to 7 (least free). Countries whose ratings fall between 1.0 and 2.5 are “Free”, between 3.0 and 5.0 are "Partly Free," and those between 5.5 and 7.0 are "Not Free."
  • Economic
  • Share of the autonomy in the economy of the country:GRP of the autonomy divided to GDP of the country (%) %
  • Level of economic development of the autonomy:relative to the country (%): GRP per capita of the autonomy divided to GDP per capita of the country %
  • Ethnic
  • Share of the dominant in the country ethnic group in the population of the autonomy:in %: population size of the dominant in the country ethnic group divided to overal population size of the autonomy (the latest census; expert estimations) %
  • Share of the titular ethnic group in the population of the autonomy:in %: population size of the titular ethnic group of the autonomy divided to overal population size of the autonomy (the latest census; expert estimations) %
  • Ethnic peculiarity:It indicates a key characteristic of autonomy's ethnic identity - language or religion or both
  • Diversity of ethnic composition:The presence of other (in addition to the titular group in the autonomy and the dominant group in the country) significant ethnic groups in the population of the autonomy
  • Political
  • Degree of self-rule of the autonomy:It is based on the Regional Authority Index project that aims at measuring the powers of all the regions in 81 countries. Here the index "tier_selfrule" (2010) is used. It summarizes five dimensions of self-rule: institutional depth; policy scope; fiscal autonomy; borrowing autonomy; and the extent to which a region has an independent legislature and executive. The index takes value from 0 to 18
  • Degree of shared-rule of the autonomy:It is based on the Regional Authority Index project that aims at measuring the powers of all the regions in 81 countries. Here the index "tier_sharedrule" (2010) is used. It summarizes five dimensions of shared-rule: participation of a region in national law-making; intergovernmental meetings; the distribution of national tax revenues; borrowing; and constitutional change. The index takes value from 0 to 12
  • The presence of the "kin-state":"Kin-state" is a state whose main population shares the ethnic characteristics of the titular ethnic group of the autonomy
  • Linguistic preferences:It indicates how the language of the titular ethnic group of the autonomy is learned in secondary schools in the autonomy
  • Ethnic conflicts:It indicates whether the serious conflicts between the autonomy and the central government as well as between ethnic groups within the authority take place in 2001-2015. The level of conflict is determined on the basis of the annual reports of Conflict Barometer

Illustration

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Added by: LDMitay, 16.11.2017

 
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