One of the 22 republics of the Russian Federation. It is located in the central part of the North-Western Caucasus, in the basins of the Kuban, Laba and Belaya rivers. The republic is situated on the territory of the Krasnodar Krai.
Circassian (Adygea) Autonomous Oblast was established in 1922, in 1928 it was renamed the Adyghe Autonomous Oblast. From 1937 to 1991 was an integral part of the Krasnodar Territory. In 1991 the Adyghe Autonomous Oblast was transformed into an autonomous republic within the RSFSR, a year later it was renamed as the Republic of Adygea.
The titular ethnic group is the Adyghe people (or Circassians) - the common name of Kabardians, Circassians, Adygs people in Russia. Self-name - Adyghe. There are three national subordinate entities in which Adyghe is one of the titular groups in the Russian Federation: Adygea, Kabardino-Balkaria and Karachaevo-Cherkessia. The markers of their differences from the titular nation of the country are language and religion. The Adyghe speak the Adyghe language, which is a part of the Abkhaz-Adyg family. They are Sunni Muslims and adhere to the Hanafi school of Islam. In general, Adyghe is less religious than other ethnic groups in the North Caucasus due to the late adoption of Islam in the region.
According to the results of the All-Russia Population Census of 2010, the share of Russians in the Republic of Adygea was 63.6%; Adyghe - 25.2%.
The historical memory of the genocide during the Caucasian War is of great importance for the ethnic identity of the Adyghe. As a result of the genocide, the majority of Adyghe found themselves outside of Russia. There are no significant ethnic conflicts in the republic, however, from time to time conflict situations arise, in particular, around the issues of the return of compatriots, historical memory, language policy, etc.