One of the 17 autonomous communities of Spain, located in the north-east of the Iberian Peninsula. It was created in 1978 in the process of adoption of a new Constitution that marked the end of the dictatorship of General F. Franco and the beginning of the democratization process in the country. Since Galicia was a region that implemented the initiative to obtain self-government even during the Second Republic (1931-1939), autonomy in 1978 was obtained through a simplified scheme in a referendum (the so-called "fast track").
Economically, the region is rather poor and subsidized, almost 50% of the population is employed in agriculture.
The titular ethnic group is Galician, which makes up about 50-60% of the region's population, while 40-50% are Spaniards. Language is the key distinguishing marker for a titular ethnic group. The Galician language is close to the Castilian, they both belong to the Oxitano-Romance sub-group of the Romance languages. The ethnolinguistic situation in the region is associated with the dominance of the Spanish (Castilian) language over the Galician language. Although the regional education system stipulates that half of the school subjects should be taught in Galician, in reality, a bias in favor of the Spanish language is visible (especially in urban schools).
The modern ethnopolitical situation in the region is characterized by relative stability and the absence of pronounced conflicts. Although Galicia is also called a nationalist autonomous community, consolidated autonomists' or, especially, secessionist voices are hardly audible there. Galician nationalist party "The Galician Nationalist Bloc" loses significantly to its national competitors, not receiving strong support in regional elections and not participating in the distribution of ministerial portfolios. The key reason for the weakness of the nationalist movement in Galicia is the lack of internal unity. Some nationalists believe that cultural autonomy should be advocated, some express their need for independence, and others cannot decide how to develop the Galician language.