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Akwa Ibom

  • Description
  • Parameters of the autonomy
  • Illustrations
  • Comments

Autonomy’s map

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Akwa Ibom

Description of the autonomy

One of the 36 states of Nigeria. After gaining independence in 1960, three regions were established in the country, each of which was dominated by one of the three main ethnic groups - Yoruba (West), Igbo (East), Hausa / Fulani (North). This configuration gave rise to conflicts, and to mitigate them, several waves of political and administrative reforms were carried out. As a consequence, each of the three main groups was divided into several states, while in some territories states were created for ethnic minorities.

Akwa Ibom was established in 1987 in a secession from the multi-ethnic Cross River state. Its creation was the response of the central government to the prolonged movement for the autonomy of Ibibio ethnic group, which is one of the largest ethnic minorities in Nigeria. Ibibio dominates in the Akwa Ibom demographically and politically. Alongside the traditional religions, Ibibio profess Christianity and speak the languages of the Niger-Congolese family.

Akwa Ibom is located in the south of the country in the Niger Delta, where the oil industry of Nigeria is concentrated. The conflict between the states of the Niger Delta, the ethnic minorities living there, and the central government regarding the control over oil resources and oil revenues has been going on for decades. Often it takes violent forms.

Autonomy's characteristics

  • Year of the creation of the autonomy:
  • Geographic
  • Where is the autonomy situated:
  • Autonomy area: km²
  • Share of the autonomy in the area of the country: %
  • Autonomy population:the latest census thousands of people
  • Share of the autonomy in the population of the country: %
  • Country's characteristics
  • Level of economic development of the country:GDP per capita in 2015 in current price in $ in $
  • Political regime in the country:It is based on the Freedom House Index, 2015. All countries of the world are located on a scale from 1 (most free) to 7 (least free). Countries whose ratings fall between 1.0 and 2.5 are “Free”, between 3.0 and 5.0 are "Partly Free," and those between 5.5 and 7.0 are "Not Free."
  • Economic
  • Share of the autonomy in the economy of the country:GRP of the autonomy divided to GDP of the country (%) %
  • Level of economic development of the autonomy:relative to the country (%): GRP per capita of the autonomy divided to GDP per capita of the country %
  • Ethnic
  • Share of the dominant in the country ethnic group in the population of the autonomy:in %: population size of the dominant in the country ethnic group divided to overal population size of the autonomy (the latest census; expert estimations) %
  • Share of the titular ethnic group in the population of the autonomy:in %: population size of the titular ethnic group of the autonomy divided to overal population size of the autonomy (the latest census; expert estimations) %
  • Ethnic peculiarity:It indicates a key characteristic of autonomy's ethnic identity - language or religion or both
  • Diversity of ethnic composition:The presence of other (in addition to the titular group in the autonomy and the dominant group in the country) significant ethnic groups in the population of the autonomy
  • Political
  • Degree of self-rule of the autonomy:It is based on the Regional Authority Index project that aims at measuring the powers of all the regions in 81 countries. Here the index "tier_selfrule" (2010) is used. It summarizes five dimensions of self-rule: institutional depth; policy scope; fiscal autonomy; borrowing autonomy; and the extent to which a region has an independent legislature and executive. The index takes value from 0 to 18
  • Degree of shared-rule of the autonomy:It is based on the Regional Authority Index project that aims at measuring the powers of all the regions in 81 countries. Here the index "tier_sharedrule" (2010) is used. It summarizes five dimensions of shared-rule: participation of a region in national law-making; intergovernmental meetings; the distribution of national tax revenues; borrowing; and constitutional change. The index takes value from 0 to 12
  • The presence of the "kin-state":"Kin-state" is a state whose main population shares the ethnic characteristics of the titular ethnic group of the autonomy
  • Linguistic preferences:It indicates how the language of the titular ethnic group of the autonomy is learned in secondary schools in the autonomy
  • Ethnic conflicts:It indicates whether the serious conflicts between the autonomy and the central government as well as between ethnic groups within the authority take place in 2001-2015. The level of conflict is determined on the basis of the annual reports of Conflict Barometer

Illustration

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Added by: LDMitay, 16.11.2017

 
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