One of the nine ethnic regions of the country. It was established in 1994 after the overthrow of the military regime of the Derg and the coming to power of the EPRDF (The Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front).The region of Oromia stretches from the central part of the country to its west and south. It borders on all other autonomies of Ethiopia except for the Tigray region. In addition, Oromia has borders with South Sudan in the west and Kenya in the north. The capital (formally) - Addis Ababa, is also the capital of the Ethiopia, as well as an independent administrative unit. The autonomous status was ensured by the 1994 Constitution.
The titular ethnic group is the Oromo. Until the XVI century. territories of the region were under the rule of various sultanates and kingdoms, most of them were provinces of the Ethiopian Empire. Then Oromo came to these territories, having conquered and assimilated indigenous peoples. Oromia turned into an independent kingdom, but in the XIX century was conquered by the Ethiopian Emperor Menelik II.
In spite of the fact that Oromo is Ethiopia's most numerous ethnic group, it always occupied a peripheral position in the Ethiopian state, yielding to the dominant Amhara and Tigrayans. The Oromo language is linked to the Cushitic branch of the Afrasian languages (while the languages of the Amhara and Tigrayans are linked to the Semitic languages). Oromo people are divided into Orthodox and Sunni Muslims. Due to the cultural diversity, Oromo remain poorly consolidated as an ethnic group. They make up about 85% of the population of the region.
Despite the participation of the Oromo Peoples' Democratic Organization (OPDO) in the ruling alliance of EPRDF, separatist sentiments are strong in the region. The activities of the Oromo Liberation Front (OPF), which promotes separatist ideas, are the cause of the main conflicts in the region. In addition, there is a high tension between Oromo and Somalis, due to mutual territorial claims.