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Bougainville

  • Description
  • Parameters of the autonomy
  • Illustrations
  • Comments

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Bougainville

Description of the autonomy

One of the 22 provinces of Papua New Guinea and the only province with a special status of the autonomous region. It is located on an island in the Pacific Ocean. Geographically, in cultural and linguistic terms, Bougainville is part of the Solomon Islands chain, and not of the islands that make up Papua New Guinea. The region received broad autonomy in 2000 during the conflict between the separatists and the central government.

The province is considered one of the world's largest copper deposits. Since 1972, the copper shaft of Panguna operated on the island. It was the only major mine in Papua New Guinea until the mid-1980s, and it was crucial for the economies of both Papua New Guinea and Bougainville. In 1989, during the civil war, Panguna was closed, which adversely affected the economy of Bougainville. Currently, the talks about the opening of the mine periodically arise, but the mine itself is in an emergency state and needs a large-scale restoration. In addition, the public is strongly against the resumption of work of the harmful to the environment mine.

In Bougainville, there are about 20 different language groups, and they can be considered collectively "Bouganvilleans". The main distinguishing feature of Bouganvilleans is the darker skin color than the main population of Papua New Guinea has. In addition, the history, economic and environmental problems associated with the mining of copper contributed to the formation of the common identity of the Bouganvilleans. The inhabitants of the island belong to the Melanesians, and the peoples related to them inhabit the neighboring Bougainville Solomon Islands.

The current ethnopolitical situation in the region is characterized by relative stability. This is due to the fact that the region has a fairly wide autonomy. At the same time, the province lives in anticipation of a referendum on the full independence of Bougainville, which, in accordance with the agreement of 2000, is to be held in 2019.

Autonomy's characteristics

  • Year of the creation of the autonomy:
  • Geographic
  • Where is the autonomy situated:
  • Autonomy area: km²
  • Share of the autonomy in the area of the country: %
  • Autonomy population:the latest census thousands of people
  • Share of the autonomy in the population of the country: %
  • Country's characteristics
  • Level of economic development of the country:GDP per capita in 2015 in current price in $ in $
  • Political regime in the country:It is based on the Freedom House Index, 2015. All countries of the world are located on a scale from 1 (most free) to 7 (least free). Countries whose ratings fall between 1.0 and 2.5 are “Free”, between 3.0 and 5.0 are "Partly Free," and those between 5.5 and 7.0 are "Not Free."
  • Economic
  • Share of the autonomy in the economy of the country:GRP of the autonomy divided to GDP of the country (%) %
  • Level of economic development of the autonomy:relative to the country (%): GRP per capita of the autonomy divided to GDP per capita of the country %
  • Ethnic
  • Share of the dominant in the country ethnic group in the population of the autonomy:in %: population size of the dominant in the country ethnic group divided to overal population size of the autonomy (the latest census; expert estimations) %
  • Share of the titular ethnic group in the population of the autonomy:in %: population size of the titular ethnic group of the autonomy divided to overal population size of the autonomy (the latest census; expert estimations) %
  • Ethnic peculiarity:It indicates a key characteristic of autonomy's ethnic identity - language or religion or both
  • Diversity of ethnic composition:The presence of other (in addition to the titular group in the autonomy and the dominant group in the country) significant ethnic groups in the population of the autonomy
  • Political
  • Degree of self-rule of the autonomy:It is based on the Regional Authority Index project that aims at measuring the powers of all the regions in 81 countries. Here the index "tier_selfrule" (2010) is used. It summarizes five dimensions of self-rule: institutional depth; policy scope; fiscal autonomy; borrowing autonomy; and the extent to which a region has an independent legislature and executive. The index takes value from 0 to 18
  • Degree of shared-rule of the autonomy:It is based on the Regional Authority Index project that aims at measuring the powers of all the regions in 81 countries. Here the index "tier_sharedrule" (2010) is used. It summarizes five dimensions of shared-rule: participation of a region in national law-making; intergovernmental meetings; the distribution of national tax revenues; borrowing; and constitutional change. The index takes value from 0 to 12
  • The presence of the "kin-state":"Kin-state" is a state whose main population shares the ethnic characteristics of the titular ethnic group of the autonomy
  • Linguistic preferences:It indicates how the language of the titular ethnic group of the autonomy is learned in secondary schools in the autonomy
  • Ethnic conflicts:It indicates whether the serious conflicts between the autonomy and the central government as well as between ethnic groups within the authority take place in 2001-2015. The level of conflict is determined on the basis of the annual reports of Conflict Barometer

Illustration

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Added by: LDMitay, 16.11.2017

 
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