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Shan

  • Description
  • Parameters of the autonomy
  • Illustrations
  • Comments

Autonomy’s map

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Shan

Description of the autonomy

It is a part of the region of Upper Burma. Shan is located in the east of the country, on the border with China, Laos, Thailand. The largest region in Myanmar (about 25% of its territory).

The titular group - Shan people - make up about 75% of the state's population. Like the Burmese, they profess Buddhism. However, Shan people speak Thai. Apart from Shan people, there are numerous ethnic minorities on the territory of the state, some of which have subregional autonomy.

Even in the Middle Ages, Shan people had kingdoms, which in some periods were dependent on Burma. During the creation of an independent Burma, Burmese leader, General Aung San, managed to reach an agreement with some mountain peoples, including Kachin. As a result of the decisions of the Panglong Conference, an autonomous state of Shan was created in 1947.

During the period of military governments in Myanmar, the balance was violated, and for many decades the armed conflict between various rebel groups, including the Shan State Army, and the central government continued. In addition, the state has strong ethno-regional parties, in the aggregate they receive about half the seats in the regional parliament. In recent decades, in the context of the democratization, attempts to restore balance in relations among ethnic groups have intensified. In 2016, with the aim of resolving the contradictions, the "The Union Peace Conference - 21st Century Panglong" began its work.

Autonomy's characteristics

  • Year of the creation of the autonomy:
  • Geographic
  • Where is the autonomy situated:
  • Autonomy area: km²
  • Share of the autonomy in the area of the country: %
  • Autonomy population:the latest census thousands of people
  • Share of the autonomy in the population of the country: %
  • Country's characteristics
  • Level of economic development of the country:GDP per capita in 2015 in current price in $ in $
  • Political regime in the country:It is based on the Freedom House Index, 2015. All countries of the world are located on a scale from 1 (most free) to 7 (least free). Countries whose ratings fall between 1.0 and 2.5 are “Free”, between 3.0 and 5.0 are "Partly Free," and those between 5.5 and 7.0 are "Not Free."
  • Economic
  • Share of the autonomy in the economy of the country:GRP of the autonomy divided to GDP of the country (%) %
  • Level of economic development of the autonomy:relative to the country (%): GRP per capita of the autonomy divided to GDP per capita of the country %
  • Ethnic
  • Share of the dominant in the country ethnic group in the population of the autonomy:in %: population size of the dominant in the country ethnic group divided to overal population size of the autonomy (the latest census; expert estimations) %
  • Share of the titular ethnic group in the population of the autonomy:in %: population size of the titular ethnic group of the autonomy divided to overal population size of the autonomy (the latest census; expert estimations) %
  • Ethnic peculiarity:It indicates a key characteristic of autonomy's ethnic identity - language or religion or both
  • Diversity of ethnic composition:The presence of other (in addition to the titular group in the autonomy and the dominant group in the country) significant ethnic groups in the population of the autonomy
  • Political
  • Degree of self-rule of the autonomy:It is based on the Regional Authority Index project that aims at measuring the powers of all the regions in 81 countries. Here the index "tier_selfrule" (2010) is used. It summarizes five dimensions of self-rule: institutional depth; policy scope; fiscal autonomy; borrowing autonomy; and the extent to which a region has an independent legislature and executive. The index takes value from 0 to 18
  • Degree of shared-rule of the autonomy:It is based on the Regional Authority Index project that aims at measuring the powers of all the regions in 81 countries. Here the index "tier_sharedrule" (2010) is used. It summarizes five dimensions of shared-rule: participation of a region in national law-making; intergovernmental meetings; the distribution of national tax revenues; borrowing; and constitutional change. The index takes value from 0 to 12
  • The presence of the "kin-state":"Kin-state" is a state whose main population shares the ethnic characteristics of the titular ethnic group of the autonomy
  • Linguistic preferences:It indicates how the language of the titular ethnic group of the autonomy is learned in secondary schools in the autonomy
  • Ethnic conflicts:It indicates whether the serious conflicts between the autonomy and the central government as well as between ethnic groups within the authority take place in 2001-2015. The level of conflict is determined on the basis of the annual reports of Conflict Barometer

Illustration

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Added by: LDMitay, 16.11.2017

 
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