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Rakhine

  • Description
  • Parameters of the autonomy
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Rakhine

Description of the autonomy

One of the seven ethnic states of Myanmar. Geographically i is a part of the territories of Lower Burma. Rakhine is located in the south-west of the country and has a border with Bangladesh. This autonomy is the second poorest state in Myanmar.

The titular ethnic group - Rakhine people - make up about 70% of the state's population. This ethnic group is the closest to the Burmese of all titular groups of the ethnic autonomies of Myanmar. Rakhine people profess Buddhism and speak a language related to Burmese.

Unlike the territories of Upper Burma, the Rakhine people did not gain an autonomous status after Burma gained independence. This caused discontent among local elites and led to ethnic mobilization. It was accompanied by major uprisings in the region. In 1974, the center granted the state of Rakhine an autonomous status. Separatist organizations continue their activities but have largely lost their social base in the region. However, Rakhine has the strongest ethno-regional parties in Myanmar.

At the same time, in recent years, another ethnopolitical conflict has come to the fore in the region. It is a conflict between the Rakhine people and the ethnic minority - Rohingya people, whose number, according to various sources, reaches 800 thousand people. Rohingya are Bengali migrants (Muslims from Bangladesh). They fundamentally differ from the region's titular ethnic group in terms of language and religion. Since the government considers them to be illegal refugees (Rohingya people themselves claim to have been living in the state for several centuries), they do not have citizenship, with all the ensuing consequences. In recent years, the intensification of the armed groups of the Rohingya people and the harsh reaction to this of the Burmese army has led to a sharp aggravation of the situation in the region.

Autonomy's characteristics

  • Year of the creation of the autonomy:
  • Geographic
  • Where is the autonomy situated:
  • Autonomy area: km²
  • Share of the autonomy in the area of the country: %
  • Autonomy population:the latest census thousands of people
  • Share of the autonomy in the population of the country: %
  • Country's characteristics
  • Level of economic development of the country:GDP per capita in 2015 in current price in $ in $
  • Political regime in the country:It is based on the Freedom House Index, 2015. All countries of the world are located on a scale from 1 (most free) to 7 (least free). Countries whose ratings fall between 1.0 and 2.5 are “Free”, between 3.0 and 5.0 are "Partly Free," and those between 5.5 and 7.0 are "Not Free."
  • Economic
  • Share of the autonomy in the economy of the country:GRP of the autonomy divided to GDP of the country (%) %
  • Level of economic development of the autonomy:relative to the country (%): GRP per capita of the autonomy divided to GDP per capita of the country %
  • Ethnic
  • Share of the dominant in the country ethnic group in the population of the autonomy:in %: population size of the dominant in the country ethnic group divided to overal population size of the autonomy (the latest census; expert estimations) %
  • Share of the titular ethnic group in the population of the autonomy:in %: population size of the titular ethnic group of the autonomy divided to overal population size of the autonomy (the latest census; expert estimations) %
  • Ethnic peculiarity:It indicates a key characteristic of autonomy's ethnic identity - language or religion or both
  • Diversity of ethnic composition:The presence of other (in addition to the titular group in the autonomy and the dominant group in the country) significant ethnic groups in the population of the autonomy
  • Political
  • Degree of self-rule of the autonomy:It is based on the Regional Authority Index project that aims at measuring the powers of all the regions in 81 countries. Here the index "tier_selfrule" (2010) is used. It summarizes five dimensions of self-rule: institutional depth; policy scope; fiscal autonomy; borrowing autonomy; and the extent to which a region has an independent legislature and executive. The index takes value from 0 to 18
  • Degree of shared-rule of the autonomy:It is based on the Regional Authority Index project that aims at measuring the powers of all the regions in 81 countries. Here the index "tier_sharedrule" (2010) is used. It summarizes five dimensions of shared-rule: participation of a region in national law-making; intergovernmental meetings; the distribution of national tax revenues; borrowing; and constitutional change. The index takes value from 0 to 12
  • The presence of the "kin-state":"Kin-state" is a state whose main population shares the ethnic characteristics of the titular ethnic group of the autonomy
  • Linguistic preferences:It indicates how the language of the titular ethnic group of the autonomy is learned in secondary schools in the autonomy
  • Ethnic conflicts:It indicates whether the serious conflicts between the autonomy and the central government as well as between ethnic groups within the authority take place in 2001-2015. The level of conflict is determined on the basis of the annual reports of Conflict Barometer

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Added by: LDMitay, 16.11.2017

 
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