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Kachin

  • Description
  • Parameters of the autonomy
  • Illustrations
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Kachin

Description of the autonomy

One of the seven ethnic states of Myanmar. It is a part of the Upper Burma region. Kachin is located in the north of the country, on the border with China. It has rich deposits of minerals, especially jade. This contributed to the development of illegal mining and trade, primarily with China. Along with this, drug trafficking is quite common here. As a result, Kachin is in a good financial position, which allows the separatists of the state to maintain their own army.

The titular ethnic group - Kachin people (or Jingpho) - make up about 40% of the region's population. They differ from the main ethnic group of the country (Burmese) in religion. During the period of the British Empire, Kachin people were converted to Christianity. Even then, there was a conflict between the Burmese and the Kachin, since the British opposed the Burmese mountain tribes, using the latter as an instrument of domination. During the creation of an independent Burma, Burmese leader, General Aung San, managed to reach an agreement with some mountain peoples, including Kachin. As a result of the decisions of the Panglong Conference, an autonomous state of Kachin was established in 1947.

During the period of military governments in Myanmar, the balance was violated, and for many decades the armed conflict between the Kachin Independence Organisation (KIO) and the central government continued. In recent decades, in the context of the democratization process, attempts to restore balance in relations with ethnic groups have intensified. In 2016, "The Union Peace Conference - 21st Century Panglong" began its work, aiming at the resolution of the existing contradictions.

Autonomy's characteristics

  • Year of the creation of the autonomy:
  • Geographic
  • Where is the autonomy situated:
  • Autonomy area: km²
  • Share of the autonomy in the area of the country: %
  • Autonomy population:the latest census thousands of people
  • Share of the autonomy in the population of the country: %
  • Country's characteristics
  • Level of economic development of the country:GDP per capita in 2015 in current price in $ in $
  • Political regime in the country:It is based on the Freedom House Index, 2015. All countries of the world are located on a scale from 1 (most free) to 7 (least free). Countries whose ratings fall between 1.0 and 2.5 are “Free”, between 3.0 and 5.0 are "Partly Free," and those between 5.5 and 7.0 are "Not Free."
  • Economic
  • Share of the autonomy in the economy of the country:GRP of the autonomy divided to GDP of the country (%) %
  • Level of economic development of the autonomy:relative to the country (%): GRP per capita of the autonomy divided to GDP per capita of the country %
  • Ethnic
  • Share of the dominant in the country ethnic group in the population of the autonomy:in %: population size of the dominant in the country ethnic group divided to overal population size of the autonomy (the latest census; expert estimations) %
  • Share of the titular ethnic group in the population of the autonomy:in %: population size of the titular ethnic group of the autonomy divided to overal population size of the autonomy (the latest census; expert estimations) %
  • Ethnic peculiarity:It indicates a key characteristic of autonomy's ethnic identity - language or religion or both
  • Diversity of ethnic composition:The presence of other (in addition to the titular group in the autonomy and the dominant group in the country) significant ethnic groups in the population of the autonomy
  • Political
  • Degree of self-rule of the autonomy:It is based on the Regional Authority Index project that aims at measuring the powers of all the regions in 81 countries. Here the index "tier_selfrule" (2010) is used. It summarizes five dimensions of self-rule: institutional depth; policy scope; fiscal autonomy; borrowing autonomy; and the extent to which a region has an independent legislature and executive. The index takes value from 0 to 18
  • Degree of shared-rule of the autonomy:It is based on the Regional Authority Index project that aims at measuring the powers of all the regions in 81 countries. Here the index "tier_sharedrule" (2010) is used. It summarizes five dimensions of shared-rule: participation of a region in national law-making; intergovernmental meetings; the distribution of national tax revenues; borrowing; and constitutional change. The index takes value from 0 to 12
  • The presence of the "kin-state":"Kin-state" is a state whose main population shares the ethnic characteristics of the titular ethnic group of the autonomy
  • Linguistic preferences:It indicates how the language of the titular ethnic group of the autonomy is learned in secondary schools in the autonomy
  • Ethnic conflicts:It indicates whether the serious conflicts between the autonomy and the central government as well as between ethnic groups within the authority take place in 2001-2015. The level of conflict is determined on the basis of the annual reports of Conflict Barometer

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Added by: LDMitay, 16.11.2017

 
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