One of the 34 provinces of Indonesia and one of three provinces that have a special status. It is located in the north of the island of Sumatra. The region was created with the independence of Indonesia in 1949, but the struggle for autonomy continued for many decades. Up until 2005, the conflict did not stop in the provinces, and the separatist insurgency acted. In 2005, the Indonesian government partially satisfied the demands of the insurgents, presenting Aceh with autonomous status.
The titular ethnic group is the Acehnese people, which constitute about 71% of the region's population. The share of Javanese (the title group for Indonesia) is only about 9%. The Acehnese people, unlike the other peoples of Indonesia, profess an orthodox Islam. In addition to religion, language is also a significant parameter for distinguishing a titular ethnic group, despite the fact that both Aceh and Indonesian belong to the Malayan-Polynesian languages of the Austronesian family. The language of the titular ethnic group does not have an official regional status in the province but is studied in school education as a local component.
The province has a number of specific preferences. Sharia courts operate in full in the region, unlike other provinces, the creation of regional parties is also allowed. In addition, the election of governors and district heads allowed the participation of those who served a sentence for political crimes and subversive activities in the course of the conflict in Aceh.
At present, the ethnopolitical situation is relatively stable, the conflict between the center and the region has moved to a peaceful course.