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Aceh

  • Description
  • Parameters of the autonomy
  • Illustrations
  • Comments

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Aceh

Description of the autonomy

One of the 34 provinces of Indonesia and one of three provinces that have a special status. It is located in the north of the island of Sumatra. The region was created with the independence of Indonesia in 1949, but the struggle for autonomy continued for many decades. Up until 2005, the conflict did not stop in the provinces, and the separatist insurgency acted. In 2005, the Indonesian government partially satisfied the demands of the insurgents, presenting Aceh with autonomous status.

The titular ethnic group is the Acehnese people, which constitute about 71% of the region's population. The share of Javanese (the title group for Indonesia) is only about 9%. The Acehnese people, unlike the other peoples of Indonesia, profess an orthodox Islam. In addition to religion, language is also a significant parameter for distinguishing a titular ethnic group, despite the fact that both Aceh and Indonesian belong to the Malayan-Polynesian languages ​​of the Austronesian family. The language of the titular ethnic group does not have an official regional status in the province but is studied in school education as a local component.

The province has a number of specific preferences. Sharia courts operate in full in the region, unlike other provinces, the creation of regional parties is also allowed. In addition, the election of governors and district heads allowed the participation of those who served a sentence for political crimes and subversive activities in the course of the conflict in Aceh.

At present, the ethnopolitical situation is relatively stable, the conflict between the center and the region has moved to a peaceful course.

Autonomy's characteristics

  • Year of the creation of the autonomy:
  • Geographic
  • Where is the autonomy situated:
  • Autonomy area: km²
  • Share of the autonomy in the area of the country: %
  • Autonomy population:the latest census thousands of people
  • Share of the autonomy in the population of the country: %
  • Country's characteristics
  • Level of economic development of the country:GDP per capita in 2015 in current price in $ in $
  • Political regime in the country:It is based on the Freedom House Index, 2015. All countries of the world are located on a scale from 1 (most free) to 7 (least free). Countries whose ratings fall between 1.0 and 2.5 are “Free”, between 3.0 and 5.0 are "Partly Free," and those between 5.5 and 7.0 are "Not Free."
  • Economic
  • Share of the autonomy in the economy of the country:GRP of the autonomy divided to GDP of the country (%) %
  • Level of economic development of the autonomy:relative to the country (%): GRP per capita of the autonomy divided to GDP per capita of the country %
  • Ethnic
  • Share of the dominant in the country ethnic group in the population of the autonomy:in %: population size of the dominant in the country ethnic group divided to overal population size of the autonomy (the latest census; expert estimations) %
  • Share of the titular ethnic group in the population of the autonomy:in %: population size of the titular ethnic group of the autonomy divided to overal population size of the autonomy (the latest census; expert estimations) %
  • Ethnic peculiarity:It indicates a key characteristic of autonomy's ethnic identity - language or religion or both
  • Diversity of ethnic composition:The presence of other (in addition to the titular group in the autonomy and the dominant group in the country) significant ethnic groups in the population of the autonomy
  • Political
  • Degree of self-rule of the autonomy:It is based on the Regional Authority Index project that aims at measuring the powers of all the regions in 81 countries. Here the index "tier_selfrule" (2010) is used. It summarizes five dimensions of self-rule: institutional depth; policy scope; fiscal autonomy; borrowing autonomy; and the extent to which a region has an independent legislature and executive. The index takes value from 0 to 18
  • Degree of shared-rule of the autonomy:It is based on the Regional Authority Index project that aims at measuring the powers of all the regions in 81 countries. Here the index "tier_sharedrule" (2010) is used. It summarizes five dimensions of shared-rule: participation of a region in national law-making; intergovernmental meetings; the distribution of national tax revenues; borrowing; and constitutional change. The index takes value from 0 to 12
  • The presence of the "kin-state":"Kin-state" is a state whose main population shares the ethnic characteristics of the titular ethnic group of the autonomy
  • Linguistic preferences:It indicates how the language of the titular ethnic group of the autonomy is learned in secondary schools in the autonomy
  • Ethnic conflicts:It indicates whether the serious conflicts between the autonomy and the central government as well as between ethnic groups within the authority take place in 2001-2015. The level of conflict is determined on the basis of the annual reports of Conflict Barometer

Illustration

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Added by: LDMitay, 16.11.2017

 
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