One of 29 and the largest of all the northeastern states of India, Arunachal Pradesh borders the territories of three countries: Bhutan to the west, China to the north and northeast, and Myanmar to the east. In the XIX century, the northern part of the territory of the state belonged to Bhutan and Tibet; the remaining parts were under the control of the kingdom of Ahom (the state of Assamese) until the conquest of Assam by the British in 1858. In 1914 representatives of China, Tibet and Great Britain signed the Simla Convention. Its result was the border between India and Tibet, now known as the "MacMahon Line", not recognized by China. After the Sino-Indian border war of 1962, the territory remained under the control of India, and here the Union territory of Arunachal Pradesh was established. In 1986, it received state status.
There are 106 listed tribes on the territory of the state, the largest of which are Nuyshi, Adi (6 tribes), Galo, Tagin, Vancho, Apatani, and Monpa. Traditionally, it is customary to single out 25 main tribes and about 100 sub-tribal entities that speak more than 50 dialects of Tibet-Birman family. All the groups are close by ethnic origins, however they differ from each other by customs, traditions, and dialects largely due to the geographical isolation. Moreover, they adhere to different religions (Buddhism, Hinduism, Donyi-Polo). From the point of view of interethnic relations, the situation in the province is quite stable.