One of the 22 republics of the Russian Federation. It is located in the southern part of Eastern Siberia, to the south and east of Lake Baikal.
In 1923, the Buryat-Mongolian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was formed, included into the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. In 1930, it was included in the East Siberian Krai with a center in Irkutsk. In 1936-37 in the course of administrative and territorial reforms and the abolition of the East Siberian Krai, the Buryat-Mongolian ASSR, Ust-Orda and Agin-Buryat Autonomous District were formed. In 1958, the Buryat-Mongolian ASSR was renamed as the Buryat ASSR. In 1990, the Supreme Council of the Buryat ASSR adopted the Declaration on State Sovereignty, in 1992 the ASSR was renamed as the Republic of Buryatia.
The titular ethnic group is Buryats. They differ from the titular nation of the country in language and religion. The Buryat language belongs to the northern group of Mongolian languages. Since the end of the XVI century, the Tibetan Buddhism of the Gelug school has been widely spread among the Buryats. There are also traditional beliefs, which are termed Shamanism or Tengrism.
According to the results of the 2010 All-Russian Population Census, the most numerous ethnic groups in the republic are Russians (66.1%) and Buryats (30.0%).
The situation in interethnic relations in the republic is assessed as stable. Nevertheless, there are points of tension, in particular, on the distribution of positions of power among the ethnic groups, language policy, etc.