One of the 17 autonomous communities of Spain, located in the north-east of the Iberian Peninsula. It was created in 1978 in the process of adoption of a new Constitution that marked the end of the dictatorship of General F. Franco and the beginning of the democratization process in the country. The Basque country borders on another autonomous community of Spain - Navarra, and is associated with it by a common titular ethnic group (Basques) and a common history.
Thanks to the historically established privileges (fueros), the Basque Country, unlike most other regions, enjoys full tax autonomy, which is based on the Concierto Económico agreement. The provinces of the region themselves collect taxes and then remit the fixed share of the taxes to the central government.
The titular ethnic group is Basques, which make up about 60% of the region's population, while the other 40% are the Spaniards. Language is the key distinguishing marker for a titular ethnic group. The Basque language, unlike other European languages, does not belong to any of the language families and is the so-called pseudo-isolated language. In addition, the Basques differ from the Spaniards in their character and customs. The education system of the Basque Country provides several models of language teaching. One can choose schools where Basque is the language of instruction and Castilian is taught as a subject or the opposite model (with Castilian as a language of education and Basque as a subject).
The ethnopolitical conflict continued in the region for many years. The reason to it was the desire of the radical part of the Basque community for independence from Spain. Until 2011, the conflict was closely linked to the violent actions of the terrorist organization ETA ("The Basque Country and Freedom"). In 2011, ETA renounced violence, and after that, the "Basque problem" underwent major changes but was not resolved. From time to time non-violent manifestations of conflict (discussions about a possible referendum, demonstrations, etc.) flash out in the region, but they have little weight on the political agenda.